Water and Sanitation

The main sources of water supply in the district are boreholes, streams, hand dug wells, rivers and pipe-borne water. Pipe-borne water supply in the district is generally inadequate. Basic schools in the district have no water facilities. The table below shows the distribution of water facilities vis-à-vis population figures at the various Area Councils in the District;



The district is endowed with a number of rivers and streams. However, some of the streams dry up during the dry season. Some of the opportunities that exist are;

• Existence of National Policy Framework on Water and Sanitation.

• Existence of National Bodies such as Community Water and Sanitation Agency.

• Availability of high surface water in the district.

• Existence of District Water and Sanitation Team

• Existence of a high water table. Availability of underground water is therefore very high.

• Existence of a number of companies that are into the drilling of boreholes in the region and with a little capital injection, access to potable water for a greater number of the people would be enhanced.

• Willingness to pay by beneficiary communities.

• High communal spirit.

• Some communities have WATSAN in place

• Availability of Institutions specialized in water technology

• Presence of District Environmental Health and Sanitation and Community Development Units with skilled personnel in community animation and mobilization.

• There are other opportunities that exist outside the jurisdiction of the Assembly for which the Assembly has no capacity to deal directly with. These are in terms of entering into contractual agreements and securing investment funds from the bilateral and multi-lateral donors.




The challenges of the water situation are;

• Inadequate capital for investment in the provision of water.

• Huge capital outlay required for the sinking of boreholes, hand dug wells and the provision of small town water systems.

• High cost of spare parts for the replacement of broken down boreholes.

• District Assembly is financially constrained to ensure access to potable water for all.

• Poor state of access roads to some of the communities.

• Dependence on unwholesome sources of water such as streams and wells.

• Weak capacity on the part of communities in the management of water facilities.

• Delays and inability of some communities to pay their counterpart funds.

• Weak community management capacity.


Sanitation Situation: Opportunities and Challenges

Sanitation Situation

The sanitation situation in the district leaves much to be desired. The percentage of houses with in-house toilet facilities is less than 1%. Basically, majority of the communities use pitlatrines. The Kumasi Ventilated Improved Pit (KVIP), Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) whilst others resort to open defecation. There are no designated refuse dumps and landfill sites.


Crude dumping is a common practice in the district. Household sanitation equally leaves much to be desired. Liquid waste from households is disposed off in the open. Most of the basic schools in the district have no sanitation facilities such as refuse dump sites, toilets and urinal facilities.



• Existence of National Environmental Sanitation Policy.

• Existence of Sanitation Companies in the country eg. ZoomLion Co. Ltd.

• Existence of Waste-to-Energy Generation Plant in Kumasi.

• Availability of land for potential refuse disposal and landfill sites.

• Existence of Department of Environmental Health and Sanitation.



• Culture of impunity pervades the communities as far as the enforcement of

environmental sanitation bye-laws are concerned.

• Low access to in-house toilet facilities.

• Indiscriminate disposal of both liquid and solid waste.

• Poor drainage systems.

• Inadequate sanitation equipment.

• Improper layout in most communities as they are rural.

• No physical layout schemes of communities in the district.


Operation and Maintenance Issues

Stakeholders in the Operation and Maintenance of Water and Sanitation Facilities

For the sustainability of water and sanitation facilities, the issue of operation and maintenance is central. For any successful operation and maintenance scheme in the management of water and sanitation facilities therefore, the following key stakeholders have been identified;


1. Pump Caretakers

2. Area Mechanics

3. Latrine Artisans

4. Spare Parts Shops


• Pump Caretakers (36)


The potentials and challenges associated with their operations are;


1. Availability of potential pump caretakers.

2. Less costly to engage community pump caretakers.

3. Ease of monitoring their activities by Community and WATSAN.

4. Ease of imbibing rudiments of operation and maintenance of water and   sanitation facilities.

5. Availability of tools needed for the operation and maintenance of water and sanitation facilities in community.



• Not motivated so sometimes laxity crops in their work.


• Area Mechanics(2)

The potentials and challenges associated with their operation are;


1. Availability of potential Area Mechanics.

2. Availability of tools needed for operation and maintenance.

3. Ease of training potential Area Mechanics.



1. One Area Mechanic often engaged to oversee a large area.

2. Job of Area Mechanics often considered as part-time.

3. Repair of boreholes not rapidly carried out by Area Mechanics.

4. Difficulty of mobility(transport)

5. Rugged terrain


Access to Spare Parts Shops

The potentials and challenges associated with access to Spare Parts Shops are;



1. Availability of spare parts

2. Availability of genuine parts



1. Long travel time to spare parts shops

2. Spare parts are costly


Latrine Artisans

• The potentials and challenges associated with their operations are;



1. Availability of  latrine artisans

2. Availability of working tools

3. Low  labor cost



• Inadequate know-how in the construction of Enviro - Loo and

Mozambique toilet facilities


• Girl Child Education


Girl child education is of utmost importance. Education over the years is skewed towards the boy child as most parents preferred sending their male children to school at the expense of the girl child. This phenomenon is more pronounced among Muslim communities and the poor in society.


To correct this imbalance, the Girl Child Education Unit was set up to promote girl child education in the Offinso-North District. Some of the activities of the Girl Child Education Unit include;

1. Monitor enrolment, retention and progress of girl child education

2. Sensitize communities on the importance of education and the need to support the girl child.

3. Sensitize pupils on the importance of education.

4. Organize training workshops for School-Based Girl Child Coordinators and Community-Based Coordinators.

5. Monitor Girl Clubs activities in schools.

6. Track girls’ performance in the district.

7. Organize Science, Technical and Mathematics Education (STME) Clinics for Junior High Schools (JHS).

8. Carry out sensitization on adult reproductive health and teenage pregnancy.

9. Organize “back to school programs” for drop-outs and teenage mothers.

10. Organize extra classes for girls, durbars and the celebration of Girls Week in the district.


Date Created : 11/2/2018 5:39:38 AM