Location and Size:
The District can be located at the South-Eastern corner of the Northern Region of Ghana and lies between latitudes 8º N and 9.29º N and longitudes 0.29 º E and 1.26ºW. It is bordered to the North by Nanumba South District, East Gonja to the West, Krachi West District to the South-West, Nkwanta North District to the East and Pru District in Brong Ahafo Region to the South.
The District has a total surface area of 1,772.04sqkm with water covering about 5%. The District is strategically located – the central point between the Northern part and Southern part of the Eastern corridor of Ghana. The District can therefore take advantage of its strategic location to be a gateway to both the Southern and Northern Ghana.
Similarly, strategic facilities of national importance aimed at wider coverage for both the southern and northern Ghana can be conveniently located in the district to achieve the desired results. Being strategically located in the transitional zone, the district has the advantage of experiencing mixed climatic conditions that have both positive and adverse implications for the district’s development.
Topology and Drainage
The lands are gently undulating with few depressions. There are few high hills to the eastern corridor of the district but mountains are completely absent. The soils are generally sandy loamy except in the lowlands and swampy areas where alluvial deposits are found. The district is endowed with three big rivers- River Oti, River Daka, White Volta and its tributaries that transverse the district at vantage points and floods these areas at the peak of the rainy season. There are also low lying and swampy areas which also become waterlogged during the rainy season. Other water bodies found in the District include numerous intermittent streams located in most parts of the District. These water bodies constitute important resources for the people as most of them depend on them for household use, fishing and transportation.
The topography of the District is not a hindrance for road development and yet most of the communities in the District are accessible only by foot paths .Generally, the area is well drained except that few portions located close to the major rivers and streams become waterlogged and pose problems for human and vehicle movement in the rainy seasons. The water bodies also create large expanse of river banks that offer an advantage for rice cultivation. Climate & Vegetation
The District lies in the Tropical Continental Climatic Zone with the mid-day sun always overhead. As result, temperatures are fairly high ranging between 29oC and 40oC. Maximum temperature is usually recorded in April, towards the end of the dry season. Minimum temperatures are also recorded around December-January, during the Harmattan period. Just like any part of West Africa, the district comes under the influence of the wet South-West Monsoon and the dry North-East Trades winds which are associated with the rainy season and the dry harmattan conditions respectively.
The rainfall pattern in Kpandai District is characterized by irregularity and variability in terms of timing of onset, duration and total amount of rainfall, which has been the key limiting factor affecting crop production in the district. However, the district has one main rainy season which is sufficient to support and sustain plant life. The total annual rainfall ranges between 1150mm to 1500mm.
This climatic pattern is good for food crop production and to some extent, forest development. However, the concentration of the rains in three months period affect farming since most parts of the year when rains are off is usually declared as “off farming” and the people spend most of this period idling. Similarly, the pattern affects accessibility to certain communities as most roads become flooded during the peak season rendering them impossible or unmotorable.
The District is located in the transitional zone between the Northern Savannah and the moist semi deciduous forest. The natural vegetation in the district is the Guinea Savannah Woodland, which has evolved from climatic conditions and modified substantially by human activities. There are few grooves, which have been preserved over the years. The tree cover consists of semi-deciduous trees such as oil palm trees; raffia palm; acacia; shea-nut trees; dawadawa trees among others. In addition, tall grasses that characterize Guinea Savannah areas are extensively spread throughout the district. A large number of both plant and animal species inhabit the natural environment.
The tree cover is relatively dense, compared to the rest of the districts in Northern Region. However, intensive harvesting of the trees for fuel wood and charcoal production, and bad attitude of the Fulani herdsmen are fast reducing the tree cover.
Geology & Soil
Land Use and Land Tenure
The major use to which land is put is farming and grazing of livestock. Some parcels of land have been put to tree plantations and woodlots and minimal to infrastructural development. The average farm holding per farm family is 6.0ha. A good number of communities have dams and dug-outs for domestic use and watering of livestock. Lands are family owned and are therefore inherited by family members. Lands are virtually free of charge and a squatter uses his/her discretion to reward the family or the right land owner.
The soils in the district are classified into three major groupings. These include alluvial soils classified as Glysols, which is found around the Volta Lake, particularly in the drawn-down zone of the Volta Lake, in the dry season. The soils along the Lake are medium textured and moderately well drained in parts. The soil is potentially fertile for the commercial cultivation of yams and maize.
The bulk of the district is covered by ground water laterites, developed mainly from Voltaian Sandstone materials, highly concretionally with frequent exposures of iron pan and boulders. There are, however, deeper and slightly better soils in some locations, which could support shifting cultivation patterns. Any development should include maintenance of vegetation cover to prevent soil erosion.
The other major soil group is the relatively fertile Savannah Ochrosols. This soil group is moderately well drained with good water retention. The soils types found in the District are good for the cultivation of crops such as yam, maize, groundnut, cassava among others. Also the recent discoveries of smooth sand (Sea-Sand) around Blajai may be an important revenue sources to the District if access road is created to the site.
Date Created : 11/30/2017 3:37:45 AM