Gender, Literacy and Education
Of the population 11 years and above, 83.6 percent are literate and 15.4 percent are non-literate. The proportion of literate males is higher (91.5 %) than that of females (74.4%). The majority (66.3%) indicated that they could read and write both English and Ghanaian languages. There are more males (75.1 %) who are literate in English and a Ghanaian language than females (66.3%). However, there are more females (l5.1%) who are literate in English only than males (12.6%)
Out of the total population of 38,042 computed, proportions of males and females who have attended school in the past before the Census in 2010 were 49.3 percent and 50.7 percent respectively. Proportion of females (18.2%) who have attained primary education is relatively higher than the males (8.4%). Similarly, proportion of females (39.1%) with JSS/JHS education as shown in the table is higher than the males (33.1%). However, the proportion of females dwindles after SSS/SHS to the level of tertiary education where the male (5.9%) proportion is higher than that of the females (2.5%).
In the district, lack of qualifications and narrow range of skills limits female access to formal employment. In rural areas, lack of female education is likely to limit farm productivity.
The gender gap in education is unlikely to be adequately tackled by a concentration on education provision in isolation. Factors such as female child labour, domestic and childcare responsibilities and contraceptive provision to reduce adolescent pregnancy also need to be addressed.
Gender and Health
Fertility rate in the district is high (3.5) and there is no clear evidence to suggest that they are in decline. High fertility rates are linked to demographic factors such as early age of first marriage and childbirth. However, economic, social and cultural factors clearly underlie these patterns, particularly women’s relative lack of education and economic opportunities. Unequal gender relations manifest themselves in decision making patterns relating to fertility, which tend to reflect male rather than female preferences.
Teenage pregnancy in the District is on the increased. In 2014(12.8%), 2015 (17.9%) and 2016 (19.0%) Education at schools and communities should be intensified .The District need support to institute adolescent health programme
As long as women lack bargaining and decision makes powers within sexual relationships, conventional family planning initiatives will have limited success. Greater involvement of men in family planning activities is required and other measures to encourage joint decision making in family planning practice.
Men form the majority of HIV/AIDS cases in the district at present, although the proportion is falling. In 2014 a total of 202 people were screened and tested positive, Out of this 79.7 percent were males and 20.3 percent females. In 2015 the number of cases dropped to 198 of which 76.3 percent were males and 23.7 percent were females.
Gender and the District Economy
Women’s labour participation rates are generally high throughout Ghana and the Bosomtwe District is not an exception. The most striking feature, however, is that more women ( 70.1%) are self-employed or work as unpaid labour in agriculture, agro-based enterprises and commerce or small scale manufacturing in the informal sector, in activities with low productivity which on average yield low incomes.
The division of labour in Bosomtwe District is highly sex-segregated in both the traditional and modern wage sectors. Only a very small number of women have broken through into modern sector occupations and even fewer into managerial positions. According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census the proportion of economically active males (94.2%) are relatively higher than economically active females (91.1%). In the Bosomtwe District, skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers remain the dominant occupation for both males (32.2%) and females (38.8%). Again, a much higher proportion of females (35.4%) than males (10.7%) are engaged as service and sales workers. With regards to craft and related trade workers, males (25.5%) have a higher proportion than females (10.2%).
Information on employment by sectors of persons 15 years and older shows that the private informal sector is the largest employer in the District, accounting for 86.2 percent of the economically active persons. The private formal sector is the second largest employer, accounting for 7.7 percent, while the public sector employs 5.3 percent of the population 15 years and above in the District. In the district higher proportions of males than females in all the other sectors except the private informal sector where females employed (91.6%) is significantly higher than males (80.3%).
Women predominate in the trading sector, mainly in petty trading, although a small minority of women has gained substantial market power. Most women in commerce are involved in informal, low productivity petty trading and hawking. These activities are strongly concentrated in highly perishable, low profit goods including agricultural produce and traditionally processed goods. Women’s trading activities are hindered by poor infrastructure, bad road conditions, weak marketing channels, limited storage facilities, and lack of other facilities at market places such as water and toilets.
Violence against Women
Violence against women is a subject which has received relatively little public attention in the district and, reflecting this, about which there is little information. However, violence against women is widespread, at institutional, community and domestic levels, taking a variety of forms.
Political participation and representation
Bosomtwe women like any Ghanaian woman are effectively under the control or authority of men (initially their father or other male members of their kin group and later their husband) for much of their lives, although they may gain in status and influence with age. As a result, women’s decision making role is constrained in both private and public spheres, markedly so with people of the northern extraction. However, where women do exercise political power, in the traditional framework, it is largely in parallel structures or by influencing male authorities
On the political scene, women in the district are not left out, though they are in the minority. Out of the total of fifty (50) Assembly members in the district, only 4 (8 percent) are women, while forty-six (82 percent) are men. Of the 4 Assembly women 2 are elected and 2 appointees. Since the creation of the district only one woman has ever been appointed as a District Chief Executive but no woman has ever been elected as a Presiding Member. There is one woman who is a chairperson of one of the three Area Councils. None of the 35 Unit Committee chairpersons is a woman. The political scene is a male dominated area and therefore limits women who are in the majority in decision making. Again, of the five statutory sub-committees of the assembly none has its chairperson to be a woman
More men are in higher positions in the district than the females. However, the impact of women activities in the district in areas of farming, commerce, trading and others is tremendous and commendable.
Identified Key Gender Issues in the District
High illiteracy rate among the youth, particularly those in the rural areas.
Lack of employable skills
Women are highly under-represented in formal sector
Relative to men, women generally have limited access to formal credit
Continuing gender imbalance in access to education
High birth rate
Single parenthood among women in the district.
Low participation of women in decision making
Gender based violence-domestic violence against women
Key Interventions in Gender Issues
Female economic groups in the district should be assisted to access credit to develop their businesses
There is a need to promote female enrolment in non-traditional vocational/technical education at post primary level in order to broaden their economic opportunities.
Factors such as female child labour, domestic and childcare responsibilities and contraceptive provision to reduce adolescent pregnancy also need to be addressed.
More female participation in the District Assembly concept must be encouraged.
The girl-child education sponsorship programme in the district must be continued to encourage more girls to attend and complete tertiary institutions.
The youth should be empowered through education and training in employable skills through the collaboration between the Assembly, traditional authorities, parents/ guardians and development partners
Intensive Public Sensitization on gender based violence
Ensure gender parity index
Address teenage pregnancies
Promote family planning and sex education
Economic empowerment of women
Mentoring of the girl child
Child panel should be established, well equipped and supported to protect and promote the welfare of children in the district.
Child Protection is the term used to describe:
The philosophies, policies, strategies, standards, guidelines and procedures to protect children from all forms of intentional and un-intentional harm;
The act of safeguarding the right of all children to a life free from violence, abuse, exploitation and neglect; and,
The prevention and responsiveness to violence, exploitation and abuse against children – including commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, child labour and harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation/cutting and child marriage.
It also includes issues on Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV) which covers defilement, rape, child marriage and other forms of violence which are driven by gender power dynamics and inequity
It seeks to guarantee the right of ALL GIRLS AND BOYS to a life free from violence, abuse, exploitation and neglect
Situation of Children in the District
Teenage pregnancy was 587 in 2015 but decreased significantly to 358 to 2016. This represents percentage coverage of 7.3% on the total ANC registrants
For the female population of 12 years and older, the never married is the majority for age cohorts 12-14 up to 20-24. Majority from age cohorts 25-29 up to 65 and above are married. This implies that females marry at an early age than males
Key Development Issues in Child Protection
Limited child registration
Children in conflict with the law
List of suggested activities to be undertaken
1. Organize meeting with stakeholders to plan Gender based violence campaign
2. Intensive Public Sensitization on gender based violence
3. Encouraging the general public to report cases
4. Counselling of affected victims
5. Empowerment of children at least
6. Conduct social enquiry into reported cases
7. Hold meetings with stakeholders involved in reported cases
8. Follow up on reported cases and bring to a close
9. Identify communities with high incidence of gender based violence and child abuse
10. Intensify public education on topical child protection issues (trafficking, child labour, teenage pregnancy, birth registration, child marriage, drug abuse, harmful traditional practices)
11. Work with community groups to create a safe environment for children
12. Create public awareness on the rights of the child
13. Involve stakeholders including CSOs in monitoring Assembly’s policies and programmes on child protection.
Information Centres in the District
There is no FM station in the district. It however has about 30 Information Centres which transmit information from affiliate FM Stations. Even though the district does not have its own FM station, most of FM , stations in Kumasi, Ejisu Konongo, Bekwai, Obuasi Koforidua and Nkawkaw are received in the district. Information Centres in the district are shown in Figure 1.13
Date Created : 11/18/2017 4:35:50 AM