An analysis of population variables in development planning is essential in view of the fact that human beings are at the centre of all national and sub-national development efforts. This section of the report therefore focuses on the analysis of the demographic characteristics of the Amansie Central District and their implications for the socio-economic development of the district.
Population Size and Growth Rates
According to the 2000 Population and Housing Census, the population of the district stood at 81,871. This was about 2.3% of the total population of the Ashanti Region. However, the district recorded a population of 90,741 during the 2010 Population and Housing Census which constitute 1.9% of regional figure of 4,780,380. This represents the inter-censal growth rate of 1.02% between the years 2000 and 2010. Therefore given the base year population as of 2010 and inter censal growth rate of 1.02%, the projected population as at 2018 is 98,455. Table 5 depicts the population size and growth rates over the years.
The current growth rate of 1.02% is less as compared to the regional and national population growth rate of 2.7% and 2.5% respectively. In terms of development the growth rate can be considered to be on the lowest side as compared to that of regional and national level. This implies that most people are abreast with family planning education in the district.
Age and Sex Distribution
Females represent the dominant sex in the district, constituting 50.2% of the population whilst males make up 49.8%. This gives a sex ratio of 99.6 males to 100 females, as against the regional ratio of 94.3 males to 100 females and the national of 95.2/100.
Table 1.11 below shows the sex composition of the population of Amansie Central District.
The age structure is broad at the base and relatively small at the top. The age structure for the district as of 2018 shows a relatively large proportion of younger people (0-14 and 15-64years) and a small proportion of older people (65years and older). The young population forms about 42.9% of the population and those within the labour force age group constitute 51.3% with only 5.8% within the old age group. This follows the normal population pyramid that characterizes developing countries with most of the people falling within the working or active age cohorts. The large percentage of people within the younger ages is an indication that the population is experiencing a rapid growth. Figure 4 gives a clear picture of the district’s age-sex structure.
The high proportion of the population within the younger age group also calls for extensive investments in education, infrastructure and other services to take care of the needs of the children and the youth. The youthful nature of the population is an indication that there is a large potential of labour force in the district and calls for efforts to expand avenues for gainful employment.
According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, the district had an economically active population of 76.6% and an economically inactive population of 23.4%. This transcends into an age dependency ratio of 1/0.948. This shows that 100 persons in the independent age group take care of 94.8 persons in the dependent age group. The dependency ratio for the district is much higher than the national average figure of 1:0.87 and about the same as the region’s average of 1:0.93. This however, does not depict the real burden of the dependent population on the independent population. This is because, some members of the dependent population might be engaged economically, whilst some of those in the independent population might not necessarily be economically engaged.
Out of the economically active population, those who were employed constituted about 43.7% of the population. The economic dependency ratio for the district is therefore computed as 1:2.28, thus every 100 people who are economically engaged take care of themselves and additional 2.28 people who are economically inactive. The implication is that those who are employed have few dependents to feed, clothe and house. Most households have low income as the high level of burden affect savings. The high economic dependency ratio gives an indication of high level of unemployment which calls for measures to be taken to create jobs for them to reduce the burden on the working population.
The district has a land area of about 710 km². The population of the district in 2000 was 81,871. The population density as at 2000 was 115.3 persons per km². The population of the district for 2010 was 90,741 and population density of the district was 151 persons per sq km. Comparing the regional population density of 208.1/km2, in 2010, the district figure is lower than the regional figure but higher than the national figures of 103 persons per km².
Population density is relatively high in Jacobu. Being an agrarian economy, the high population density faces many constraints, especially on land resource utilization. This affects agriculture in terms of reduced average farm size per head in the district.
Rural-Urban Split /Spatial Distribution (Settlement Pattern)
There are 206 settlements scattered over the district. However, the population sizes of all the communities are very small. Jacobu is the only urban settlement in the district as at 2010 with a population size of 10,562 and 80,016 is rural. This situation poses a problem for the distribution of higher order services and functions in the district. This is because some services need greater threshold population before they can be provided, implying that many of the several small communities may not qualify for higher order services, such as health centres, banks and senior secondary schools. Efforts at development should be focused on promoting rural development and urban management issues such as housing, waste management and water supply.
The rural areas are characterized by primary economic activities mostly agriculture and galamsey (illegal mining) with limited infrastructural facilities.
Apitisu No. 2
Source: Population and Housing Census Reports for 2010 and 2018 projections
Source: Town and Country Planning Department (TCPD, 2017)
Household Sizes and Characteristics
The household structure in the District is still traditional, in spite of modernization. The average household size is estimated at 5.5 persons which is higher than the national rural figure of 4.2 persons. This implies that each household has a larger number of people to feed, clothe and house. Most families are characterized by low standard of living as evidenced by the estimated expenditure pattern where the bulk of the family income goes into food (45.3%), clothing (11.0%), education (22.0%) and (21.7%) for shelter.
According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, the district has an economically active population of 76.6% and an economically inactive population of 23.4%. Out of the economically active population, those who are employed constitute about 95.9% of the population. Out of those who are employed, about 80% are engaged in agriculture, 0.5% in industry and 19.5% in the service sector.
Differences between progressive and backward settlements within districts can usefully be assessed in terms of the ways terrestrial space is organized or the facilities available in the settlements for others to depend on or enjoy.
This section therefore highlights the facilities available in various settlements in the district and degree to which the settlements depend on one another i.e. the functions they perform.
Distribution of Facilities
There are 206 settlements in the district. Jacobu is the only urban settlement and 90.4% of the population live in the rural areas. Service distribution is positively related to population. Distribution of services is skewed towards the larger communities to the detriment of the smaller ones. Communities with higher population generally have high number of services. A general observation indicates that services are concentrated in Jacobu.
The other higher order services are further located in the capital towns of the sub-district councils. Some facilities are located at a central point of the town/area councils based on the collective population threshold of the town/area councils but not to the settlements that have the threshold that merit the facility. Jacobu, the district capital has higher order services such as a Hospital, a Senior High School and a Police Station due to its administrative purposes. Many of the communities in the district are deficient in service facilities.
Roads, potable water supply, electricity and sanitary facilities are complementary utilities that enhance the economic and social prosperity of the people. They provide opportunity for opening up natural resource production areas in the district. The analysis of the current situation reveals that the absence of these in the rural areas is the main reasons for the migration of the youth to urban areas. This phenomenon has repercussions for the development of the District as it is deprived of labour that could have been engaged in productive work in the rural areas.
Functional Hierarchy of Settlements (Scalogram Analysis)
A Scalogram was used to show the centrality level (sphere of influence) of selected facilities in the district and the relative functionality of each settlement within the district. Twenty three (23) settlements and 28 functions were used in preparing the Scalogram. The sign x is used to identify the facilities in each settlement; where there is no x sign it indicates the absence of such facilities in that community.
From the Scalogram, results obtained four (4) settlement orders. The criteria for the classification are:
1st order: settlement with total centrality score of above 1000
2nd order: settlement with total centrality score of between 200-999
3rd order: settlement with total centrality score of between 100-99
4th order: settlement with total centrality score of below 100
Jacobu, the District capital constitutes the only first order settlement. The second order settlements are made up of Tweapease and Fiankoma whiles Mile 14, Mile 9, Fenaso No. 2, Hia No. 2, Abuakwaa, Afoako and Numereso form the third (3rd) order hierarchy. The fourth (4th) order is made up of the other settlements in the district.
The first order settlement, Jacobu, provides higher order services to all the communities in the district. Jacobu is the administrative capital of the District. It therefore provides various administrative functions to the district since most of the decentralized departments are located at the District Assembly. It provides higher level order services such as senior high education to the other communities and Hospital. Also, Jacobu provides high level security to the settlements in the districts. The Police Headquarters is located in Jacobu. Jacobu is the only settlement that provides banking services to all the communities in the district.
The second order settlements in the district are Tweapease and Fiankoma. They perform further decentralized administrative functions to the settlements within their jurisdiction. They also provide medium level healthcare services to their neighbouring communities.
The third order settlements in the district comprise of Mile 14, Numereso, Afoako, Mile 9, Abuakwaa, Fenaso No.2 and Hia No.2. These communities have low order facilities to support their livelihood.
The fourth order settlements are those settlements that are not provided with any special functions. They are rather the beneficiaries of the high order services provided by the settlements in the other orders of the hierarchy.
The analysis reveals one major fact, ie, a high preponderance of settlements in the lowest order with few facilities and therefore performing few functions. Poor road network is a major factor contributing to the under development of the area.
Source: Town and Country Planning Department (TCPD, 2017)
Settlement System and Linkages
The nature of settlements within the district is not evenly distributed. There are a lot of satellite communities which are far apart and linked by poor road network.
Date Created : 11/16/2017 3:04:38 AM