The Central Gonja District is located at the southern end of the Northern Region of Ghana. It shares boundaries in the north with the Tamale Metropolis, the Kintampo North District of the Brong-Ahafo Region in the south, East Gonja District in the East and the West Gonja District in the West. It covers a total land area of 8,353 Km2, representing 12% of the total landmass of the Northern Region. Buipe, the administrative capital. The District was established by Legislative Instrument (L.I) 1750 .
The land form of the district is low lying but gently undulating at altitudes ranging between 150m to 300m above sea level though some parts average 600m. The area is traversed by two major rivers - the White Volta, which flows longitudinally through the district, and the Black Volta, which forms the district’s southern boundary with the Kintampo North District. A lot of streams crisscross the district and flow into the two Volta Rivers.
The Central Gonja District lies within the tropical continental zone. Annual rainfall is unevenly distributed and limited to six months that is, from May to October. The mean annual rainfall ranges between 1000mm and 1500 mm with its peak in September. It has a slightly longer rainy season than the rest of the Northern Region.
The population of the district according to 2010 population and housing census stands at 87,877 with 43,860 males and 44,017 females.